The following is a direct quote from aphis.usda.gov. The links proceeding will provide greater detail for the NPIP program.
"The National Poultry Improvement Plan was established in the early 1930's to provide a cooperative industry, state, and federal program through which new diagnostic technology can be effectively applied to the improvement of poultry and poultry products throughout the country. The development of the NPIP was initiated to eliminate Pullorum Disease caused by Salmonella pullorum which was rampant in poultry and could cause upwards of 80% mortality in baby poultry. The program was later extended and refined to include testing and monitoring for Salmonella typhoid, Salmonella enteritidis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, and Avian Influenza. In addition, the NPIP currently includes commercial poultry, turkeys, waterfowl, exhibition poultry, backyard poultry, and game birds. The technical and management provisions of the NPIP have been developed jointly by Industry members and State and Federal officials. These criteria have established standards for the evaluation of poultry with respect to freedom from NPIP diseases."
Sadly, many that participate in the USDA NPIP program are unaware of what the NPIP tests for. We have heard many participants claim that they are tested for "everything" because they participate in the NPIP program, this is simply not true. We have also heard many enthusiasts claim there are no provisions for MG/MS testing under subpart E, also not true. Our intent is to provide you with accurate information and links to those sights that will provide you with information that will be helpful in your search for poultry.
The NPIP program is a large program and covers many types of poultry. A small farm flock would fall under Subpart E—Special Provisions for Hobbyist and Exhibition Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products. To be a participant in the NPIP there is an initial testing of the flock, it is for Pullorum-Typhoid , this is the minimal testing required to be a participant . There are additional testing programs that a participant may choose to have done. Wingin'it Farms has chosen to take part in the additional testing for Avian Influenza.
Pullorum-Typhoid ~ blood sample required from each bird
testing done yearly/ on site with immediate test results
birds are given an ID band if testing negative
Avian Influenza ~ PCR throat swab taken on a percentage of birds from individual or collective flocks
testing done quarterly/ swabs sent to state lab for diagnostics- approximately 10 days for results
notified with results and updated "clean" sticker
§ 145.53 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. States there is a provision for the testing of MG: (c) U.S. M. Gallisepticum Clean. (1) A flock maintained in compliance with the provisions of § 147 .26 of this chapter and in which freedom from M. gallisepticum has been demonstrated under the criteria specified in paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section.
Providing NPIP information
As participants with the USDA NPIP program we are thankful for all the support they give to us. NPIP focuses on educating the public about disease and disease prevention which is also at the heart of our poultry program. We will gladly provide poultry enthusiasts with information that the NPIP program has given us. We encourage others to also take part in the NPIP program.
Contact your local county extension agent for more information on becoming an NPIP participant.